There has been a Jewish presence in our community ever since the establishment of South Bend and Mishawaka in the 1830s. In 1912, South Bend had the third largest Jewish population in the state, many of whom came from Germany. The South Bend Turnverein, founded on June 13, 1861, was a German social club and gymnasium that had both Christian and Jewish members. It was organized by 10 local community leaders, including Moses Livingston, a German Jew who moved to South Bend in 1856 and opened a dry goods store with his cousin, Meyer Livingston. In this early 20th century photograph, members of the Turnverein Club gather for a picnic at Muessel Grove, located on Wilbur Street in South Bend.